Page numbers and quotations found throughout this guide refer to this publication.
Only the most frequently used examples are included here.
For example, if you read an article by Brown (2017) and that author quotes the earlier work of Smith (2010), Brown is the secondary or indirect source (because it was written later) and Smith is considered the direct or original source (because it was written first).
To cite a source you found in another source, state the original author within your sentence and state "as cited in" followed by the last name and year of the secondary source.
For a more comprehensive discussion of APA style, please refer to the Publishing Manual of the American Psychological Assiociation, found at the Research & Information Desk in Buley Library.
Help with citing and creating reference lists is also available at the Campus Writing Center. Here's an example: Class notes can't be retrieved by most readers. (See the tabs for books and articles.) Original or Unattributed If the material in the course pack was not previously published, cite the source as a compilation. (See the examples above.) Viewed Live Power Point files or other materials shared live in a class are just like live lectures—they can't be retrieved by anyone after the fact. Last_name (Chair), Reply brief of petitioners Jennifer Gratz and Patrick Hamacher, Gratz v. (You may share your notes with a friend or group in the class, but for the most part, no one else will see them.) Because class notes can't be retrieved, they should be cited as personal communications. If you are new to APA Style, take some time and explore this guide. However, if you need information fast, try these commonly used quick links.How to Find DOIs In-text (Parenthetical) Citations Listing Authors In-text Creating a Reference List Listing Authors in a Reference List Sample Citations: Books Journal Articles Magazine Articles Newspaper Articles Movies & TV Shows Music & Podcasts Blogs, Emails, Online Videos Legal Citations The American Psychological Association has been producing style rules for publication since 1929.You do not need to include the page or paragraph number when paraphrasing or summarizing. If no page numbers are listed, cite the paragraph number of the information that you use from the web page.When citing a web page, determine if the author is a person or an organization. If you can’t find an individual author, but you can find an organization or group that is responsible for the content of a web page, then cite that group, organization, corporation, university, government agency, or association as the author.If the title is very long, just use the first few words: When quoting a media source such as a video or audio recording that lacks page numbers but includes timestamps, the citation should include the speaker (or screen name), the year of the recording, and When a group or an organization creates a work, that organization, corporation, university, government agency, or association can be treated as the author.In this case, include the full name of the group as the author: ) as a source that cites or quotes another source.