Kilts originated in Ireland, tartans have been found in Bronze Age central Europe and bagpipes are thought to have come from ancient central Asia. Famous names from Scottish literature include: Sir Walter Scott, Lord Byron and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. The flag of Scotland is known as the saltire (pictured below) or St.
*Shortlisted for the Deutscher Memorial Prize 2003* This book is a reassessment of Scottish politics and society in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century.
In Great Britain, the garment is still called a “Mac”. The official religion of Scotland is Christianity, with churches traditionally being called “kirks”. Scotland gained independence in 1314, after Robert the Bruce (pictured below) defeated the English army at the Battle of Bannockburn. The Kingdom of Scotland remained as an independent state until , when the Acts of Union joined it with England, in the United Kingdom of Great Britain. Since July 1, 1999, Scotland has its own parliament, for the first time since 1707. The country has an area of 30,414 square miles (78,772 km²) 30.
The total population is around 5.2 million, around 8.5 per cent of the UK’s population. The country has approximately 167.5 people living per square mile. There are as many Scottish people living in North America as in Scotland, with censuses in the United States and Canada identifying around five million people claiming Scottish ancestry. The country still has its own legal system, separate from England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
James’s overt Roman Catholicism, his suspension of the legal rights of Dissenters, and the birth of a Catholic heir to the throne raised discontent among many, particularly non-Catholics. The birth of his son in June raised the likelihood of a Catholic heir to the throne and helped bring discontent to a head.
Opposition leaders invited William of Orange, a Protestant who was married to James’s daughter Mary (also Protestant), to, in effect, invade England. Several leading Englishmen invited William of Orange, a Protestant who was married to James’s eldest daughter, Mary (also Protestant), to lead an army to England.
Seven eminent Englishmen, including one bishop and six prominent politicians of both Whig and Tory persuasions, wrote to William of Orange, inviting him to come over with an army to redress the nation’s grievances.
William was both James’s nephew and his son-in-law, and, until the birth of James’s son, William’s wife, Mary, was heir apparent.
The Glorious Revolution (1688–89) permanently established Parliament as the ruling power of England—and, later, the United Kingdom—representing a shift from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy.
When William III and Mary II were crowned, they swore to govern according to the laws of Parliament, not the laws of the monarchy.