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You may wish to include citations for sources that add relevant information to your own work, or that present alternate views.The reference citation style described here is a version of the "Author, Date" scientific style, adapted from Hansen (1991) and the Council of Biology Editors (1994).
Personal communications are generally not included in the References Cited or Bibliography section, although unpublished papers, reports or manuscripts should be.
If your source of information has no individual identifiable author, use the name of the organization to which the work can be attributed in place of the author's name: As New England is located at the convergence of several distinct storm tracks ( we expect to find clear differences in isotopic composition among seasons and potentially among different rain storm events (Fig. Such a source would be omitted from your References Cited or Bibliography section.
Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations.
But you also need to cite sources from which you paraphrase or summarize facts or ideas -- whether you've put the fact or idea into your own words or not, you got the fact or idea from somebody else and you need to give them proper acknowledgement (even if an idea might be considered "common knowledge," but you didn't know it until you found it in a particular source).
Plagiarism is presenting the words or ideas of someone else as your own without proper acknowledgment of the source.
When you work on a research paper and use supporting material from works by others, it's okay to quote people and use their ideas, but you do need to correctly credit them.List all authors by last name and initials, separated by commas if there are more than two authors. Then put the year of publication, the title of the book (in italics if possible), the publisher, the city, and the number of pages in the book. A., 1999, A retrospective analysis on the occurrence of arsenic in ground-water resources of the United States and limitations in drinking-water-supply characterizations, Adapt these formats as necessary for other types of sources, including unpublished reports or manuscripts -- just be sure to include sufficient information that your readers could find or obtain these sources themselves, if need be. One author: List the author(s) of the article using the same format given above for books, then give the year, the title of the article or chapter (no quotes, italics or underlines), then the name(s) of the editor(s) of the book or compilation, followed by "ed." or "eds.". Further information can be found by consulting Hansen (1991), Council of Biology Editors (1994), and Harnack & Kleppinger (2000), particularly their chapter on Using CBE Style to Cite and Document Sources. Your list of References Cited should include all of the references you cited in your paper, and no more!It should be arranged in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author.Even when you summarize or paraphrase information found in books, articles, or Web pages, you must acknowledge the original author.Citation management software let's you save, organize, format and share citations from a variety of sites (e.g.(For example: Allen 1996a, 1996b.) You should include enough information that your readers will be able to find these sources on their own.The exact format is not critical, but consistency and completeness is. A reference guide to using internet sources, Bedford/St. to the year, in the order in which the different references appear in your paper.(For example: Allen 1996a, 1996b.) If the reference you are citing has two authors, use the following format: If your source of information is from written correspondence (a letter or e-mail), you would substitute the word "written" for the word "personal" above, and you would add the date of the letter (if dated).