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Percentage of total body water and extracellular fluid volume both decrease as children grow and develop with time.Pediatric patients thus have a larger volume of distribution than adults, which directly affects the dosing of hydrophilic drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics like ampicillin.Phase I and Phase II enzymes have different rates of maturation and development, depending on their specific mechanism of action (ie.
The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of medications differ between developing children and grown adults.
Despite completed studies and reviews, continual research is needed to better understand how these factors should affect the decisions of healthcare providers when prescribing and administering medications to the pediatric population.
Acid is essential to degrading certain oral drugs before systemic absorption.
Therefore, the absorption of these drugs in children is greater than in adults due to decreased breakdown and increased preservation in a less acidic gastric space.
Pediatricians often have to treat the parents and sometimes, the family, rather than just the child.
Adolescents are in their own legal class, having rights to their own health care decisions in certain circumstances.In other European countries, the Charité (a hospital founded in 1710) in Berlin established a separate Pediatric Pavilion in 1830, followed by similar institutions at Saint Petersburg in 1834, and at Vienna and Breslau (now Wrocław), both in 1837.In 1852 Britain's first pediatric hospital, the Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street was founded by Charles West.Islamic writers served as a bridge for Greco-Roman and Byzantine medicine and added ideas of their own, especially Haly Abbas, Serapion, Avicenna, and Averroes.The Persian philosopher and physician al-Razi (865–925) published a monograph on pediatrics titled Diseases in Children as well as the first definite description of smallpox as a clinical entity.A major difference between the practice of pediatric and adult medicine is that children, in most jurisdictions and with certain exceptions, cannot make decisions for themselves.The issues of guardianship, privacy, legal responsibility and informed consent must always be considered in every pediatric procedure.In preterm neonates and infants, their kidneys are slower to mature and thus are unable to clear as much drug as fully developed kidneys.This can cause unwanted drug build-up, which is why it is important to consider lower doses and greater dosing intervals for this population.Also among the first books about pediatrics was Libellus [Opusculum] de aegritudinibus et remediis infantium 1472 ("Little Book on Children Diseases and Treatment"), by the Italian pediatrician Paolo Bagellardo.In sequence came Bartholomäus Metlinger's Ein Regiment der Jungerkinder 1473, Cornelius Roelans (1450–1525) no title Buchlein, or Latin compendium, 1483, and Heinrich von Louffenburg (1391–1460) Versehung des Leibs written in 1429 (published 1491), together form the Pediatric Incunabula, four great medical treatises on children's physiology and pathology.