Behavior changes, such as understanding what stresses or situations may contribute to overeating and learning to modify these behaviors, are also important for achieving weight-loss goals.Even small amounts of weight loss — such as 5 to 10 percent of your total body weight — can have health benefits, the CDC says.Although there are lots of fad diets, such short-term dietary changes are not the best way to keep weight off permanently, the CDC says.
Health consequences fall into two broad categories: those attributable to the effects of increased fat mass (such as osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, social stigmatization) and those due to the increased number of fat cells (diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease).
Although the negative health consequences of obesity in the general population are well supported by the available evidence, health outcomes in certain subgroups seem to be improved at an increased BMI, a phenomenon known as the obesity survival paradox.
Certain health conditions also can lead to weight gain, including: Besides its physical consequences, obesity may also take an emotional toll: Some people with obesity experience depression, feelings of social isolation, discrimination and an overall lower quality of life, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Whether or not obesity should be considered a "disease" (or an abnormal state) is a matter of debate.
Modern culture and conveniences also, in part, contribute to obesity.
According to the Mayo Clinic, environmental factors that promote obesity include: Oversized food portions, busy work schedules with little time for an active lifestyle, limited access to healthy foods at supermarkets, easy access to fast food and lack of safe places for physical activity.
In people with heart failure, those with a BMI between 30.0 and 34.9 had lower mortality than those with a normal weight.
This has been attributed to the fact that people often lose weight as they become progressively more ill.
Excessive body weight is associated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, In contrast, a 2013 review found that grade 1 obesity (BMI 30–35) was not associated with higher mortality than normal weight, and that overweight (BMI 25–30) was associated with "lower" mortality than was normal weight (BMI 18.5–25).
Other evidence suggests that the association of BMI and waist circumference with mortality is U- or J-shaped, while the association between waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio with mortality is more positive.