However, it has been argued that the model should be updated to consider the challenges presented by modern flexible working environments where career patterns and organisational structures have less relevance.
Deal and Kennedy (2000) stated that there are six interrelated elements defining organisational culture: Deal and Kennedy categorised company culture around attitudes to risk-taking and the speed of feedback.
Culture has been described as the glue holding organisations together or, more simply just the way in which things are done in a business (Reiss, 2012; Bower, 2003).
There are a number of indicators of organisational culture: (Landy & Conte, 2016) All of these factors impact upon organisational performance and profitability, as well establishing unwritten/implied guidelines on issues such as customer engagement, quality, innovation, and corporate social responsibility.
The theory has been criticised for being too superficial as it does not consider different cultural drivers or the dynamics of more modern, highly flexible/responsive organisations.
Charles Handy (1996) developed a framework linking categorisations of organisational culture to evidence in the form of organisational structure (Diagram 1): (Handy, 1996) Handy recognises that in small organisations culture will probably be driven by the personality and/or preferences of individual managers/leaders, but within larger organisations culture will become self-replicating and self-reinforcing.Our research has shown that having the right culture is important for sustainable organisation performance.This report contains detailed case studies of six organisations who are undertaking culture change.It is therefore appropriate to examine organisational and wider environmental issues in parallel.Schein (2010) argued that there are three layers of culture in organisations - artifacts and behaviours, espoused values and basic underlying assumptions.The report also includes a practical checklist, drawn from our case studies’ experiences, of some of the important issues to consider for effective culture transformation is also included.Populations internationally: ‘) the level of individualism, b the power distance, c the uncertainty avoidance, d the masculine-feminism and e) the dynamism’ (Tian, 2004, p The above elements/ criteria are used in order to explain the strategies followed by the Grameen Bank for supporting the poor women; aso these elements are used for understanding the perspectives of the bank’s plans in regard to the financial development of poor women, a least for covering their basic needs.National/Regional and societal aspects are known to influence organisational cultures.This has clear implications for international businesses and there is increasing recognition of the fact that ‘Western’ beliefs about organisational culture do not necessarily apply in other settings and vice versa.Organisational culture introduces unspoken rituals and tacit rules and addresses the actions, values, and behaviours, which, in combination, contribute to the overall philosophy and environment of the organisation.It shapes the way in which employees behave and make decisions and is formed over time as a result of the experiences and values of the organisation and the way in which it reacts to internal and external circumstances.