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Unfortunately, all biological systems are profoundly complex, so simple, unambiguous, direct relationships between objects can be difficult to ascertain.The internal validity of a study is judged by the degree to which its outcomes can be attributed to manipulation of independent variables and not to the effects of confounding variables.
For example, a change in vena cava pressure can alter intraocular pressure by its effect upon ocular blood drainage.
Evaluation of a potential cause-effect relationship between 2 objects is accomplished through the development of the study design.
Furthermore, the influence of these variables may not be fully appreciated by those conducting the research.
External validity is primarily determined by how subjects are selected to participate in a study and by the use of randomization procedures that limit potential bias in how subjects are assigned to treatment groups.
Material in each section should be organized by topic from most to least important.
The methods section is the most important aspect of a research paper because it provides the information by which the validity of a study is ultimately judged.Once all elements of the methods section are written down during the initial draft, subsequent drafts should focus onhow to present those elements as clearly and logically as possibly.In general, the description of preparations, measurements, and the protocol should be organized chronologically.Historically, the methods section was referred to as the materials and methods to emphasize the 2 distinct areas that must be addressed.Materials referred to what was examined (eg, humans, animals, tissue preparations) and also to the various treatments (eg, drugs, gases) and instruments(eg, ventilators) used in the study.A confounding or extraneous variable is anything other than the independent variable of interest that may affect the dependent variable.Therefore, a change in a dependent variable may be due wholly or in part to a change in a confounding variable.The methods section should describe what was done to answer the research question, describe how it was done, justify the experimental design, and explain how the results were analyzed. Therefore, the methods section structure should: describe the materials used in the study, explain how the materials were prepared for the study, describe the research protocol, explain how measurements were made and what calculations were performed, and state which statistical tests were done to analyze the data.Once all elements of the methods section are written, subsequent For clarity, when a large amount of detail must be presented, information should be presented in sub-sections according to topic.Who is chosen for inclusion in a study (as well as how treatments are assigned) in large measure determines what limits are placed on the generalizations that can be made regarding the study results.Thus, when writing the methods section, it is important to describe who the subjects were in the context of the research question.