Hate crime laws are also symbolic and promote social cohesion by officially stating that victimization of people who are “different” is not accepted or tolerated in a modern society.
There have also been arguments against the formation of hate crime laws.
A hate crime is a “criminal offense against a person or property motivated in whole or in part by an offender's bias against a race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, ethnicity, gender or gender identity.” Specifically, victims of crimes that are bias-motivated are more likely to experience post-traumatic stress, safety concerns, depression, anxiety and anger than victims of crimes that are not motivated by bias. Paper presented at a congressional briefing co-sponsored by the American Psychological Association and the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues.
Psychosocial motivations of hate crime perpetrators: Implications from prevention and policy.
Hate crime victimization, 2004–2012 statistical tables (NCJ 244409).
Retrieved from https://gov/content/pub/pdf/hcv0412Paybarah, A., & Cheney, B. NYPD: Hate crimes rise in 2017, led by anti-Semitic incidents. Critics also wonder why anger/hate is more punishable than other motives such as greed.Although there has been (and still is) debate about hate crime laws, the mere fact that they exist in several countries around the world, as well as within the United States, indicates that reasoning in favor of these laws has outweighed that against them. Minutes of the meeting of the Council of Representatives July 28 & 30, 2004, Honolulu, HI. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 2004.Hate crime laws in the United States exist at the federal and state levels.Although federal and state laws differ, most protected characteristics include race, national origin, ethnicity, and religion. While hate crime behavior has a long history, it has only been in the last couple of decades that research to understand this type of crime has been conducted. Although not all jurisdictions, academics, or professionals agree about who should be protected by hate crime laws, the majority of such laws describe the offender’s motivation based on prejudice against the victim’s, race, color, nationality, religion, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or disability status.Others argue that the disagreement over which subordinate groups to include in the hate crime laws actually causes added discrimination and marginalization.Critics state that what these laws effectively are saying is that one group is more worthy of protection and care than another.