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Lifelines were adversely affected, especially the numerous vital roads and highways that were closed by landslides and bridge failures.Several areas remained cut off via land routes even three months after the main event.The main identified feature in this zone is the Balakot- Bagh fault (Hussain 2005), which is the likely source of the earthquake.
Learning from Earthquakes An EERI reconnaissance team comprising Saif Hussain, Coffman Engineers, Inc., Encino, California; Ahmed Nisar, MMI Engineering, Oakland, California; Bijan Khazai, Columbia University, Earth Institute; and Grant Dellow, Institute of Nuclear and Geological Sciences, New Zealand, visited Pakistan November 13-20, 2005. This report summarizes the salient portions of the information gathered during the visit.
During the visit, the team was hosted by the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) University of Engineering and Technology (UET) and spent four days in the earthquake-affected areas of northern Pakistan. The publication of this report is fund- ed by EERI's Learning from Earthquakes Program, under National Science Foundation Grant #CMS- 0131895.
(Note: Additional photos from the reconnaissance team can be viewed at org/google.) Introduction On October 8, 2005, at a.m.
local time, a magnitude Mw = 7.6 earthquake struck the Himalayan region of northern Pakistan and Kashmir.
Because of the lack of instrumentation, there are no strong motion records within the zone of intense shaking.
Observational data and reports from locals suggest a strong vertical component and 30-45 seconds of strong shaking.The intensity distribution estimated and interpreted by the Pakistan Geological Survey is closely associated with the rupture zone.Outside the narrow (5- 0 km) width of the rupture zone, the signs of damage appeared to be fairly minor.Approximately 38,000 were injured and over 3.5 million rendered homeless.According to government figures, 19,000 children died in the earthquake, most of them in widespread collapses of school buildings.The earthquake affected more than 500,000 families.In addition, approximately 250,000 farm animals died due to collapse of stone barns, and more than 500,000 large animals required immediate shelter from the harsh winter.A very dense, high-frequency band of landslides was triggered along the fault rupture trace in the midslope areas; however, it quickly dissipated with distance away from the fault rupture zone.Almost all landslides were shallow, disaggregated slides, with two of them larger than 0.1 km2.The distribution of subsequent aftershocks, in the Balakot, Batagram, Allai, and Beshram Qila areas, suggests that the fault ruptureextended in the NW direction.The surface trace of the causative fault can be interpreted from the map of ground displacements from radar amplitude measurements (COMET 2005).