They included the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments and 7 civil rights acts.
The promise of equality during postwar Reconstruction, the period of reestablishment of the seceded States into the Union, however, was not realized.
After the American Revolution, with the invention of the cotton gin, slavery in the South intensified.
Black Americans provided most of the labor to support the economy of that region.
Civil rights violence dates back at least to the mid-18th century, with the slave revolts of that period and their brutal suppression by whites.
Roaming bands of runaway slaves in the South attacked plantations, and, in 1775, fears of a general slave uprising led to the annihilation of at least one group of Blacks by white soldiers in Georgia.When Blacks in Memphis, Tenn., appealed for their civil rights in 1866, rampaging white terrorists burned homes and churches in the Black section of that city and massacred 47 Blacks.The killing of 27 delegates by a white mob at the Louisiana State Convention in New Orleans in 1866 was described by one observer as "systematic massacre of Negroes by whites." Of 16 Blacks elected as delegates to the Mississippi Constitutional Convention in 1868, two were assassinated by whites.In the Alabama election campaign of 1870, four Black civil rights leaders were murdered when they attended a Republican rally.White terrorists took control of Meridian, Miss., in 1871 after they killed a Republican judge and lynched an interracial group of civil rights leaders.During the 1830's, sentiment for emancipation of slaves solidified.The-movement for the abolition of slavery, led by "radicals," sparked violence throughout the United States.But for some, after his death, as a Washington Post writer observed, "..army of conscience disbanded, the banners fell, the movement unraveled..." History of Civil Rights Violence Dr.King's tragic death in Memphis in 1968 was not, unfortunately, historical aberration.Reforms were ultimately defeated by Southern white intransigence and violence.With emancipation, a wave of murders swept the South, and Reconstruction became the bloodiest period of civil rights violence in U. history, as the caste system of segregation was violently institutionalized.