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Reification, for instance, ignores historical context, presenting neoliberal development as universal. The past nevertheless informs the present and therefore also inform development in part because “there is no just way in which the oppressive past …
The powerful use various strategies to fix meanings as ‘truths’.
Wale and Foster (2007) discuss mutually reinforcing strategies that ground power imbalance: legitimisation uses normative justification, dissimulation hides or masks it, and reification claims that it is natural.
In societies divided by antagonistic principles of legitimacy, democracy cannot cordon off its own values and institutions from contestation without opening itself up to claims of arbitrariness and violence. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 86(4): 707-728.
In these situations, politics will need to be played out at two levels: first, within the confines of the democratic game and secondly, at the level of the constitutional principles of the game itself. Though Muldoon studies state-level politics, the idea that politics is carried out at two levels applies, mutandis mutandis, globally.
The second considers the case of poverty, focusing on how it is defined and by whom.
The conclusion suggests that, while postcolonialism struggles to put ideas into practice, it provides the clearest way of tackling poverty once and for all.
Powerful international actors define and evaluate development, impacting actions taken and conclusions reached. will determine what practical actions may be taken.
In turn, the sorts of actions selected determine who is authorized to act, who shall wield power, and, consequently, who shall not” (Yapa, 1996: 719). Global Poverty: Development Ethics Meets Global Justice.
Even ‘inclusive liberalism’ and its cousins operate within existing rules.
They “maintain the asymmetries in the international economic order and, therefore, the hegemony of the Northern states who underwrite the rules of multilateral engagement” (Tan, 2011: 1045).