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Keep scrolling to see an updated version of Johnson’s photo essay, which shows the effects of Canadian oil mining — a process in which oil-laden sand is dug from the ground, the fuel separated out, and the land converted back into use for wild plants and animals.Today that process makes up about 50% of the Keystone XL pipeline’s oil, while less-visible “in situ” pumping generates the rest.
Foreign oil supplies are vulnerable to unnatural disruptions from in-state conflict, exporters' interests, and non-state actors targeting the supply and transportation of oil resources.
The political and economic instability caused by war or other factors such as strike action can also prevent the proper functioning of the energy industry in a supplier country.
One of the worst risks to oil transportation is the exposure of the five ocean chokepoints, like the Iranian-controlled Strait of Hormuz.
Anthony Cordesman, a scholar at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.
The XL segment already is partially built, and may ultimately cost entrepreneurs more than $10 billion.
Upon completion, it would move larger volumes of oil in less time by shortening the route and burying larger-diameter pipes.In the context of energy security, security of energy supply is an issue of utmost importance.Moreover, it is time to define "a global energy policy model, which not only aims at ensuring an efficient environmental protection but also at ensuring security of energy supply".Nebraska regulators on Monday approved Keystone XL, a 1,180-mile-long (1,900-kilometer) extension of the existing Keystone Pipeline operated by Trans Canada Corp.But the 3-2 vote in favor of expanding the pipeline followed a leak of 210,000 gallons of oil just days before.For example, the nationalization of oil in Venezuela has triggered strikes and protests in which Venezuela's oil production rates have yet to recover.Exporters may have political or economic incentive to limit their foreign sales or cause disruptions in the supply chain.C., warns, "It may take only one asymmetric or conventional attack on a Ghawar Saudi oil field or tankers in the Strait of Hormuz to throw the market into a spiral." New threats to energy security have emerged in the form of the increased world competition for energy resources due to the increased pace of industrialization in countries such as India and China, as well as due to the increasing consequences of climate change.Increased competition over energy resources may also lead to the formation of security compacts to enable an equitable distribution of oil and gas between major powers.Beyond the risk of spills like the one this week, the project’s steep environmental costs also include the potential industrialization of 54,000 square miles of Alberta wilderness.“The scale and severity of what’s happening in Alberta will make your spine tingle,” Robert Johnson, a former Business Insider correspondent, wrote after flying over the Canadian oil sands in May 2012.