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) or "city-state" develops, including Athens, Corinth, and Sparta.Archaeologically we see a greater, more developed, artistic output in the form of painted pottery and the rise of trade with other areas of the Mediterranean. The development of writing in the middle of the eighth century brings us out of the "Dark Ages" and into the historical period properly speaking.These 'Hellenistic Kingdoms' were centers of learning and artistic patronage; institutions such as the Libraries at Alexandria and Pegamon were responsible for the preservation and transmission of much of earlier scholarship and literature.
C., Octavian (Augustus) incorporated much of what had been Greece into the Roman province of Achaia. Ephesos, Pergamon, and Aphrodisias were major Roman cities in Asia Minor.
Centers of learning and the arts such as Athens and Rhodes, as well as the sanctuaries of Delos and Delphi, continued to flourish in the Roman period, particularly under the patronage of such philhellenic emperors as Hadrian (A. Constantine the Great created a new capital in the eastern half of the Roman empire, renaming the ancient Greek city of Byzantium "Nova Roma", the New Rome, more commonly known as the city of Constantine, "Constantinopolis" (modern Istanbul).
At the beginning of the Neolithic period there was a big change from a nomadic "hunter-gatherer" lifestyle to one of settled village life and agriculture.
This term comes from the concept of the 'Ages of Mankind', originating with Stone, followed by Bronze, and Iron.
This is the time of the great “ Kimonian” and “Periklean” building programs in Athens, which include the Parthenon and other famous temples on the Acropolis.
Conflict with other Greek cities results in the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.
Following the death of Alexander, his empire was divided into three parts: the Seleucids in Asia Minor; the Ptolemies in Egypt and the Macedonian (Antigonid) dynasty in Greece.
The process of rule by kingship, common in the Near East, is established in the eastern area of the Greek world, including the Attalid dynasty in Pergamon.
C.) and the defeat of Athens at the end of the fifth century.
Subsequent decades see the rise of Macedonian power, beginning with Philip II, and culminating with the conquests (and death in 323) of Alexander the Great.