Finally we consider how internal institutional data, such as researcher curricula vitae and grant applications, can be used to identify and incentivize social engagement and outward-facing scholarly activities (that is, activities with outward-facing goals).
To illustrate our argument, we examine in detail the variety of ways in which researchers from different fields might contribute to a central capability for adequate shelter.
We then turn to the development of metrics for tasks such as portfolio analysis and program evaluation.
Next we introduce the Capabilities Approach, a conceptual framework for human well-being developed by ethicists and economists over the last 40 years.
This Approach focuses on basic human needs, rather than wealth, and we draw specifically on a list of central human capabilities developed by philosopher Martha Nussbaum.
We first distinguish two kinds of goals for scholarly research — inward- and outward-facing — and discuss the relationship between these goals, the value of research, and conventional bibliometrics and economic metrics of research productivity.
Next we introduce the Capabilities Approach, a conceptual framework for national well-being that was developed by economists and philosophers as an alternative to measures such as Gross Domestic Product.
These questions are fundamentally intertwined, which complicates the study of boards due to the joint endogeneity of makeup and actions.
A focus of this survey is on how the literature, theoretical as well as empirically, deals - or on occasions fails to deal - with this complication.
Scholarly research can be understood as a social practice — that is, a complex, collaborative, goal-oriented, socially organized activity (Hicks and Stapleford, 2016).
Many fields of research have both inward-facing and outward-facing goals.