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There are two kinds of work that minors can do: In general the second kind of work is usually labelled child labour.Estimates are that up to 350 million children are affected by child labour.In many societies, children as young as 13 are seen as adults and engage in the same activities as adults.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution in Britain in the late 18th century, there was a rapid increase in the industrial exploitation of labour, including child labour.
Industrial cities such as Birmingham, Manchester, and Liverpool rapidly grew from small villages into large cities and improving child mortality rates.
Child labour has existed to varying extents throughout history.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, many children aged 5–14 from poorer families worked in Western nations and their colonies alike.
Children younger than nine were not allowed to work, those aged 9–16 could work 16 hours per day: Cotton Mills Act.
In 1856, the law permitted child labour past age 9, for 60 hours per week, night or day. Child labour means that children are forced to work like adults and take part in an economic activity.In pre-industrial societies, there is rarely a concept of childhood in the modern sense.Children often begin to actively participate in activities such as child rearing, hunting and farming as soon as they are competent.This is especially the case in non-literate societies.Most pre-industrial skill and knowledge were amenable to being passed down through direct mentoring or apprenticing by competent adults.These children mainly worked in agriculture, home-based assembly operations, factories, mining, and services such as news boys—some worked night shifts lasting 12 hours.With the rise of household income, availability of schools and passage of child labour laws, the incidence rates of child labour fell.Child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially or morally harmful.although these laws do not consider all work by children as child labour; exceptions include work by child artists, family duties, supervised training, and some forms of child work practiced by Amish children, as well as by Indigenous children in the Americas.In 1856, the law permitted child labour past age 9, for 60 hours per week, night or day.In 1901, the permissible child labour age was raised to 12.