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Rather this religion with its strong social base and rational philosophy played a dominant role in the 6th century B. Gautama, who later became famous as Buddha, was born at Lumbini garden (Modern Rumnhndei or Rupan-dehi). His father, Suddliodan, was the chief of the Sakya republican clan.His mother, Mayadevi, passed away few days after his birth.But he did not find the real knowledge he was searching for.
After Mahavir Jina, another spiritual guru who appeared in the religious firmament of India to rectify the extreme dominance of the Brahmanical class was Gautama Buddha.
Like his predecessor he too raised his voice against the ritualistic practices and tried to purify and simplify the existing religious system.
He got him married to a beautiful princess named Yasodhara. But no such worldly attachments could make the prince happy.
The cause of his unhappiness lay in his realization that the sufferings of the mankind were due to old age, disease and death.
Then Gautama went to Uruvela near modern Bodhgaya and sat in deep contemplation under a peepal tree. His name was changed from Gautama to Buddha, the Perfectly Enlightened One, at the age of thirty-five.
The tree under which he got the light of knowledge became famous as Bodhi tree.
Since birth is the cause of all human sufferings and sorrows, it is by virtue of one’s own Karma or action that man should try to get rid of birth.
In fact, the Buddhist theory of Karma is like that of the Hindus and it contradicts the philosophy of Jainism which refutes the theory of action.
Those who want to get out of the clutches of suffering and want to achieve the ultimate end of human life, i.e., Nirvana, must follow a path. The philosophy of Buddhism was extremely rationalistic. One’s present stage is determined by his past action.
The path advocated by Lord Buddha to reach Nirvana is known as the Aryan Eight-fold path that comprises of eight important ways of life. Otherwise he reaps the consequences of his own actions done in his previous birth.