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This fight was marked by the assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat at the hand of the Islamists, followed by a government crackdown that weakened the movement and left it with two major extremist organizations. On September 9, 2001, Al Qaeda operatives assassinated Ahmad Shah Massoud. One of these two groups was the Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), an organization that would develop ties with AQ largely due to the efforts of Ayman al-Zawahiri. Massoud was an influential Afghani political and military leader of the Northern Alliance, the Taliban’s most significant opposition in Afghanistan. AQ and its affiliates have been responsible for many of the deadliest terrorist attacks in the past twenty-five years.[i] "Proud to Offend, Charlie Hebdo Carries Torch of Political Provocation." The New York Times. The son of an extremely wealthy Saudi businessman, he became an important member of the jihad by providing funding for the movement.[iii] Throughout the occupation, he worked with prominent Palestinian cleric Abdullah Azzam to create a group called Mektab al-Khidmat (“Bureau of Services”) that funneled jihadis into Afghanistan.[iv] In the mid-1980s, Haqqani Network (HN) leader Jalaluddin Haqqani granted bin Laden land in the mountainous region between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Je M’s leader, Masood Azhar, allegedly met with Osama bin Laden and secured his support to create Je M in the late 1990s or early 2000s. Al Qaeda-Affiliated Groups: Middle East and Africa.
She wrote her Whenever retrievable, URLs for freely available versions of subscription-based publications have been provided.
Thanks to the Open Access movement, self-archiving of publications in institutional repositories or on author homepages for free public use (so-called Green Open Access) has become more common.
Zawahiri, the leader of an EIJ faction, built rapport with bin Laden through near-constant communications with the AQ leader. "Al Qaeda's Uncertain Future." Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 36.8 (2013): 636. A Taliban offensive against the Northern Alliance was coordinated in conjunction with the assassination, suggesting that AQ carried out the attack for the Taliban.[civ] While the Taliban and AQ cooperated against the Northern Alliance and American forces in Afghanistan after 9/11, underlying tensions did not disappear, and some analysts have held that the strength of the relationship between the two groups has often been overstated in the media since then.[cv] The Taliban retains control of rural and relatively inaccessible territory in Afghanistan, and the country continues to be a base of operations for AQ.[cvi] In January 2019 peace negotiations with the U.
Their relationship was so strong that many began to consider Zawahiri the deputy head of AQ.[x]Between 19, Hassan al-Turabi, the head of an Islamist political party in Sudan, encouraged bin Laden to bring Al Qaeda to Sudan. S., however, the Taliban reportedly agreed to cease allowing AQ to operate within Afghanistan, calling the state of the AQ-Taliban relationship into question.[cvii]Ansar Ghazwat-ul-Hind is an AQ affiliate that largely operates in Jamma and Kashmir, India.
August 7, 1998: Al Qaeda operatives detonated car bombs outside the U. embassies in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. The bombings took place on the 8th anniversary of U. (12 killed, 11 wounded)[i]Al Qaeda (AQ) is one of the most powerful terrorist organizations in the world, with a long history and a global reach. Since then, it has grown to become an organization with affiliates and supporters all over the world and has carried out some of the most violent and infamous attacks in the last twenty-five years.[i] It seeks to rid the Muslim world of foreign influence and establish Shariah-based Islamic governments.[ii]Al Qaeda emerged from the mujahideen movement that challenged the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan beginning in the late 1970s. It has ties to Al Qaeda, including overlapping membership.
An AQ affiliate, Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), claimed the attack, and there is evidence that at least one of the gunmen traveled to Yemen, participated in AQ training, and receiving funding for an attack. The group was founded by Osama bin Laden on August 11, 1988 after he had gained experience training and organizing opposition against the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. A leader of Le T condemned AQ’s entry into the region, as the two organizations pursue markedly different objectives: Le T, like Jaish-e-Mohammed, hopes to remove Kashmir from Indian control and add the province to Pakistan, while Al Qaeda advocates global jihad.[xciii]Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (Le J) is a prominent militant organization in Pakistan known best for its anti-Shiite attacks.
Though focusing on recent literature, the bibliography is not restricted to a particular time period and covers publications up to early November 2017. Anti-Americanism, Religious Outlooks, and Favorable Attitudes toward Terrorist Organizations. (2017): Financial Terror: Financial Crime Schemes Involving Extremists Linked to the American Far Right and al-Qaeda and Affiliated Movements. Freilich (Eds.): (Wiley Handbooks in Criminology and Criminal Justice). Tanchum, Micha’el (2012): Al-Qa’ida’s West African Advance: Nigeria’s Boko Haram, Mali’s Touareg, and the Spread of Salafi Jihadism.
Authors wishing to submit a piece of work should review the author guidelines and then email submissions to This bibliography contains journal articles, book chapters, books, edited volumes, theses, grey literature, bibliographies and other resources on Al-Qaeda and its affiliated organizations. Braniff, William [Bill]; Moghadam, Assaf (2011, May): Towards Global Jihadism: Al-Qaeda’s Strategic, Ideological and Structural Adaptations since 9/11. Ciftci, Sabri; O’Donnell, Becky J.; Tanner, Allison (2017, September): Who Favors al-Qaeda? Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed; Moreng, Bridget; Barr, Nathaniel (2015, September): The Strategic Dimensions of the Competition between the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and al-Qaeda. (Eds.): Sullivan, Brandon A.; Freilich, Joshua D.; Chermak, Steven M.
Although bin Laden promised to avoid drawing too much attention, he later gave a highly publicized and inflammatory interview to CNN in March 1997.[xix] A year later, bin Laden and leaders of several other jihadist organizations made a sweeping declaration of global jihad from a camp in the mountainous Afghani-Pakistani border region, calling on all Muslims all across the world to kill Americans wherever they were.[xx]Meanwhile, Zawahiri had traveled around the world, including within the U.
S., to raise funds and support various jihadist movements. Understanding the Al Qaeda Relationship with Its Affiliate Organizations." Security Studies 23.3 (2014): 463-5.