Programs are designed to follow a community school model, which sees the school as the center point of the community where youth, families, and community residents work as equal partners with schools and other community institutions to develop programs and services.Community schools aim to foster strong partnerships between schools, families, and community partners, share accountability for results, set high expectations for all, build on the community’s strengths, and embrace diversity.Tags: Furniture Business PlanDissertation Topics In Educational LeadershipPublic International Law Essay CompetitionProposed ResearchHistory Essay World War 2Outline For Writing A Research PaperEssays About Heroes My DadSafe Assign Blackboard
Research concerning the effects of after-school programs on student social and academic outcomes has been mixed.
Several large-scale evaluations of federally funded 21st Century Community Learning Centers after-school programs found no effects on student academic achievement among elementary or middle school students .
Programs provided out-of-school care with an emphasis on activities designed to foster student achievement and social emotional growth.
The nine program sites were housed in schools from three public school districts and served children from prekindergarten through sixth grade.
These studies have examined program and individual student factors and suggest that a combination of individual, program, and contextual factors is important when assessing the impact of after-school programs [2–4].
According to the Harvard Family Research Project model, variability in the effects of after-school programs on academic and social outcomes is best explained by variability in student participation, a three-part construct that includes student enrollment, attendance, and engagement .Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, 1360 Peachtree Street NE, Suite 1020, Atlanta, GA 30309, USAReceived 29 January 2014; Accepted 3 March 2014; Published 10 April 2014Academic Editor: Xinyin Chen Copyright © 2014 Kathryn E. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Research on the relationship between after-school program participation and student outcomes has been mixed, and beneficial effects have been small.In the present study, we use data from a longitudinal study of after-school programs in elementary schools to examine staff ratings of students’ engagement in after-school program activities and how engagement is associated with academic and social outcomes in school.Most empirical investigations of student engagement during school or in after-school activities have relied on either student or teacher/staff reports, with similar patterns of findings across reporters [7–9, 11].The factor structure of the staff-rated measure of student engagement was examined by exploratory factor analysis.Multiple regression analyses found that student engagement in academic, youth development, and arts after-school program activities was significantly related to changes in teacher ratings of academic skills and social competence over the course of the school year and that students with the greatest increase in academic skills both were highly engaged in activities and attended the after-school program regularly.There is however a larger body of literature on the effects of student engagement during the school day.This literature—which conceptualizes engagement as multidimensional and having cognitive, emotional, and behavior components—shows that engagement in school is robustly associated with higher academic achievement and lower risk of school dropout (e.g., [9–12]).All participants were enrolled in one of nine after-school program sites located in elementary schools in the inner-circle suburbs of a Midwestern city.Over the course of the two years of the study, most sites were in their first two full years of operation.